LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions
1) Many environmentalists rank global warming as the most serious current threat to the world’s environment, citing evidence that over the past 30 years, the global temperature has risen an average of 2 degrees. However, the average global temperature this year is equal to the average global temperature of last year. Global warming, therefore, is not as serious a problem as these environmentalists claim.
The argument is most vulnerable to the criticism that it
- Argues that because a threat is present, that threat must be more serious than any other possible threat.
- Concludes that because there is lack of evidence for a problem, that problem does not exist.
- Attempts to refute a conclusion about a general trend by appealing to a single counterexample, even though such a counterexample may be consistent with the general trend.
- Relies on the ambiguous use of a key term.
- Presupposes what is seeks to establish.
2) Independent tests have confirmed that, on average, the antilock brakes found on Griffon min-vans outperform those of any other mini-van. Thus, any consumer who is purchasing a mini-van based solely on the criteria of safety should purchase a Griffon mini-van.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most weakens the argument?
- Mini-vans are less safe than some other types of automobiles.
- Most consumers purchase cars based on multiple criteria in addition to safety.
- During the test, the brakes on some Phoenix mini-vans outperformed those on some Griffon mini-vans.
- The brakes on Griffon mini-vans are simple to use and maintain.
- The Phoenix mini-vans achieved a better frontal crash-test rating than the Griffon mini-vans.
3) Any person who uses words ambiguously cannot become a journalist, since journalistic reporting cannot invite artistic interpretation.
Which of the following, if assumed, would allow the conclusion above to be properly drawn?
- No person who invites artistic interpretation can use words ambiguously.
- Any person who uses words ambiguously will invite artistic interpretation in their reporting.
- Any journalist who invites artistic interpretation will sometimes use words ambiguously.
- Either a journalist uses words ambiguously or that journalist invites artistic interpretation.
- No journalist who invites artistic interpretation can become a great journalist.
4) Home alarm systems are commonly regarded by insurance companies as improving the safety of the home. However, statistics show that the break-in rate for homes equipped with such alarms is slightly higher than the break-in rate for houses without such alarms.
Which of the following statements, if true, would most help to reconcile the insurance companies’ belief with the statistics cited?
- Home alarm systems are generally installed only in those homes that are in theft-prone areas.
- Because home alarm systems generate many false alarms, authorities are slow to respond to such alarms.
- Without signs announcing the presence of a home alarm system, the system does little to deter theft.
- Home alarm systems offer little protection against practiced thieves.
- Many home owners state that they feel safer after purchasing a home alarm system.
5) Some people interpret the phrase “survival of the fittest” as “survival of the strongest.” However, inasmuch as “strong” is interpreted as “physical size and prowess”, this is incorrect. Although strength and size provide a survival advantage within a species in such tasks as breeding, fighting for food, and running from predators, a species will survive only if its overall resource requirement for maintaining its strength does not outweigh the resources available, as is often the case during a famine or other ecological disaster.
Based on the passage above, which of the following statements must be true?
- If a species’ resource requirement for maintaining its strength outweighs the resources available, that species will not survive.
- Strength does not provide a survival advantage for hunting food.
- The phrase “survival of the fittest” should not be used by the scientific community.
- The species with the least strength is the most likely to survive in a famine.
- If a species does not survive an ecological disaster, it is because that species’ resource requirement for maintaining its strength outweighed the resources available.